The term Proxemics has been derived from the word Proximity meaning nearness or closeness.
 It is the study of space and distance between the people while communicating. 
A skillful use of proximity creates a mutual understanding between communicators as the space or 
distance between the sender and the receiver affects the meaning of the message.
The distance in non-verbal communication is divided into four zones.
  1. Intimate Zone: Only special people are allowed to enter into this space. It is upto 1 to 1.5 feet.
  2. Personal Zone: It is maintained while communicating with family members and good friends. It is 
    upto 4 feet.
  3. Social Zone: It is maintained in formal communication. It is upto 12 feet.
  4. Public Zone: It is meant for public speaking and social gatherings. It is beyond 12 feet.Exchange of 
    slap indicates anger and violence.
However, the distance between the two speakers varies culture to culture.
For Example:
  1. A manager keeps distance from the workers.
  2. In public speaking the distance between the Speaker and the audience is 12 to 30 feet.
    It is the study of the use of time in non-verbal communication. Basically, it deals with the way we use our
 time and our notions of time. Time can also be used as an indicator of status.    Whenever we take long time 
 to send the message, it shows our liking or disliking of doing something. Moreover, it also reflects our sincerity 
or insincerity. There are various factors where time is misused such as delays, waiting, seeking appointment etc.
    1. A person who is always late on the job expresses lack of interest, disrespect and indiscipline.
    2. A person who reaches early for an interview shows his sincerity and enthusiasm.

    Artifacts are visual forms of communication. It refers to environment and objects.  They include objects on
  body such as costume, jewellery, ornaments, spectacles etc. They indicate the status, lifestyle and interests of
 the persons.     
Similarly artifacts also include accessories of decoration in house, office, libraries, restaurants etc. 
They also convey the very status of the object.
For example:
  • A particular statue or antique piece in the office conveys meaning.
  • Use of different colours also conveys the meaning.

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